We have unconscious assumptions how this world works when interpreting the information regarding:

  • color: object in the shadow is lighter.
  • object detection
  • depth

The Gestalt psychologists proposed:

  • proximity
  • similarity
  • closure
  • good continuation
  • Good form

Some experiments:


Memory transition
Memory transition

Stroop Effect: combine the color and word, the attention on the word distracts you.


  • implicit vs. explicit
  • semantics(facts) vs. episodic
  • recall vs. recognition
  • sensory vs short term vs long term.

Short term memory has limited storage, 7+/27 +/- 2, found by George Miller.

Encoding for long term memory:

  • Depth of processing
  • Mnemonics
  • Understanding.

Basically add more context to the things.

Factors we have difficulties to retrieve memory:

  • Decay
  • Interference
  • Change of cues

False Memories

  • Expectations
  • Leading questions
  • Hypothesis
  • Repressed memories, — still skeptical.
  • Flashback memories, — might not be true even vivid.